• Represented by two objects connected by a relationship
    • features of objects and values of features of objects can create similarity as well

Cross Domain Analogy

patient/laser problem relation to army/road problem


similarity spectrum

  • Superficial: deals with features, counts, objects
  • Deep: deals with relationships between objects, relationships between relationships

  • Semantic: conceptual similarity between target and source case
  • Pragmatic: similarity of external factors, such as goals
  • Structural: similarity between representational structures


Case base reasoning is very similar to analogical reasoning, but analogical reasoning has a mapping and transfer step in addition.


When talking about the relationship of an electron to a neutron in an atom, retrive example of planet relationship to sun in the solar system.

Type of similarity is important, see ##Similarity

case-based reasioning would likely only pull superficially similar or deeply and superficially similar analogies.


What in the source problem pertains to what in the target problem.

Solve the correspondence problem:

  • give higher-order relationships priority over lower-order relationships
  • 18.11 lecture
  • patient/army analogy mapping should be based on goal. Army’s goal is to kill king, laser’s goal is to kill tumor



Once correspondence has been established: induce a pattern of relationships

  • goal: kill king / remove tumor
  • obsticle: road mines / healthy tissue
  • resource: soldiers / lasers
  • strategy: decompose resource, arrive at location at the same time


In a graphical representation, the vertices represent the objects and features, the edges are representing relationships


Evaluation can reach out to prior states, such as retrieval, mapping or transfer to help a source get closer to the goal.


Store case and solution as a source case and keep for case-based reasoning

Compound Analogy

Use parts of several analogies to combine into one source.

Issues w/ Analogical Reasoning

  • different cases may not have common vocabulary
  • Abstraction and transformation
  • Compound and compositional analogies
  • Visuospacial analogies
  • Conceptual combination