The problem being discussed is what object could substitute for a cup if no cups are available…

Concept Space

How does an agent determine if an object can work as a cup:

Prior knowledge of cups:

  • Object -> has -> Bottom
    • Bottom -> is -> Flat
  • Object -> made-of -> Porcelain
  • Object -> has -> Decoration
  • Object -> has -> Concavity
  • Object -> is -> Light
  • Object -> has -> Handle

Agent wants to prove:

  • Object -> is -> Cup

A prior knowledge relationship looks like this:

prior knowledge

Where the yellow arrows indicate causality


AI agent has to abstract from other concepts to a concept that it can use for any object.

1) A cup must be stable 2) A brick is stable because it has a flat bottom 3) A cup is stable because it has a flat bottom, like a brick

transfer learning

Analogical Transfer